||Markvard Tausen |
Markvard (Marcus) and Catherina's son, Hans Tausen
Danish Church reformer; b. Birkende, Fyn Island, Denmark, 1494; d. Ribe, Denmark, Nov. 11, 1561. Of his peasant parents nothing is known beyond their names, Markvard (Marcus) and Catherina. Tausen entered the Order of St. John of Jerusalem and spent his youth in the priory in Antvorskov. Later he studied at the universities of Rostock (1516?19), Copenhagen (1521), Louvain (1522), and Wittenberg (1523?24), where he became acquainted with Martin Luther's ideas. He was transferred to the Johannite convent at Viborg (c. 1525), and there he started preaching lutheranism and gathering the first Lutheran congregation of Denmark. Almost immediately after his expulsion from his convent, King Frederik I gave him a letter of protection (Oct. 23, 1526). During the next three years several Franciscan and Dominican priory churches were placed at the disposal of the Lutherans of Viborg. In 1529 the king appointed Tausen preacher of the church of St. Nicholas in Copenhagen. There he gathered a large Lutheran congregation and participated in the formulation of the 43 evangelical articles produced at the meeting of the Council of the Realm in July 1530. After the death of his patron, King Frederik I (1533), Tausen entered into a compromise with the bishop of Roskilde, Joachim Rønnow, that apparently ruined his reputation among Danish Lutherans. When the Catholic bishops were arrested and replaced by evangelical superintendents (1536), Tausen was passed over, and not until 1542 was he appointed bishop of Ribe. This post he held until his death. His place in the early history of Protestantism in Denmark has earned him the title "The Danish Luther."
Bibliography: p. rØn, Sciagraphia Lutheri Danici (Copenhagen 1757). Dansk biografisk leksikon 23 (1944) 367?379. m. christensen, Hans Tausen (Copenhagen 1942). w. gÖbell, Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 7 v. (3rd ed. Tübingen 1957?65) 6:662.
New Catholic Encyclopedia
Hans Tausen (Born 1494 in Birkende near Langeskov on East Funen - died 11 November 1561 in Ribe) was a Danish clergyman and reformer, later bishop of Ribe, he translated the Bible into Danish and is known as' the Danish Luther '.
Childhood and youth:
Almost nothing is known about Hans Tausen's childhood and youth. Two years of birth are known, both uncertain, 1494 after the epitaph in Ribe Cathedral, and 1498 after a late 16th century account. When it is told that he was the son of a farmer or a blacksmith and that he ran away from home, these are legends which have no basis in the sources. The family name and the fact that Hans Tausen became a monk in a rich monastery indicate that the family belonged to the lava part. Tausen was then to be a family name on the part of the mother, which is supported by a source from the time, where Hans Tausen is referred to as Hans Markvadsen, which is why his father should have been named Markvad (Markus); however, there may also be a definite error in this source. It is believed that he went to the learned schools in Odense and in Slagelse. At one point he became a monk in the Johanniterklosteret in Antvorskov near Slagelse,and from there, in 1516, he was sent to the University of Rostock to study. Here he received the 1517 baccalaureate degree and the 1519 master's degree. In 1520 he is referred to by the title 'Dominus', which probably means that at that time he had been ordained a priest. That same year he lectured in Rostock on a Latin translation of a then-presumed Aristotle text.
From the autumn of 1521 he was enrolled at the University of Copenhagen as a theology student. Here one of his teachers was the theologian and Carmelite monk Poul Helgesen. One year later, Tausen enrolled as a student at the University of Leuven / Louvain in present-day Belgium. Here, however, he was only short, as already in the spring of 1523 he was enrolled at the University of Wittenberg, where he remained most of two years. Martin Luther had just returned to Wittenberg after his stay at Wartburg and Hans Tausen was thus in town at the same time as Luther.
In 1525, Tausen returned to Denmark, probably initially to Antvorskov Kloster. However, he is only known from his appearance in Viborg's Johanniterkloster, where he was to lecture to the monks. When it turned out that he had acquired evangelical views and the Reformation doctrine arose, he was expelled - according to his own statement - by the monastery and the order. He preached at various churches in the city, and gradually gained many followers among the citizens of the city. Hans Tausen was threatened by the then bishop of Viborg, Jørgen Friis, and was possibly also briefly imprisoned. Again, the sources are both late and slightly legendary. The citizens of Viborg, however, took him under their protection and persuaded King Frederik I that Hans Tausen was appointed the king's personal chaplain, but for the time being remained in Viborg.However, the title of royal chaplain was rather pro forma, in fact the letter of defense meant that Hans Tausen was no longer under the jurisdiction of the church and the bishop, but [under] the city of Viborg.
Hans Tausen and his congregation had initially lived in one of Viborg's parish churches, Sct. Hans Kirke, but as this eventually could not accommodate them, it is said that Hans Tausen had to preach in the open air until the congregation broke into the large Gråbrødre Klosterkirke and took it over, although initially sharing the use of the church with the Franciscan monks . During his time in Viborg, Hans Tausen married Dorothea, who may have been related to Tausen's co-fighter Jørgen Jensen Sadolin. The marriage aroused great indignation among the clergy of the city. In Viborg, Hans Tausen published a number of writings, which are the first Danish writings from the Reformation tube, including translation of Luther's baptismal rite (1528) and a defense,Edt kort antswor «/ i» (1529) for the Viborg Reformation shaped as a response to the Funen bishop Jens Andersen Beldenak's warning letter to the citizens of Viborg and Aalborg against the new heretical doctrine. In Edt kort antswor, Tausen also explains the teachings of the Viborg preachers (there were more than just Tausen).
When the Reformation in Viborg was completed in 1529, Hans Tausen was called by the king to Copenhagen, where he preached in Nikolaj Church. At the Lord's Day in Copenhagen in 1530, together with preachers from the largest Danish market towns, he presented "Confessio Hafniensis", the Danish Reformation's only independent confessional. However, it was Peder Laurentsen from Malmö who wrote this confession rather than Tausen. After Frederik I's death in 1533, forces in the Council of State wanted to restore the power of the Roman Church in Denmark, and as an example, a warning was raised on Hans' Day in 1533 against Hans Tausen. He was accused of libel, disobedience, participation in the image storm in Copenhagen's Church of Our Lady on the third day of Christmas 1530, and even worse for heresy in the sacrament doctrine.Tausen defended himself strongly and probably with some luck against these accusations, which i.a. had been put forward by his former teacher at the university, Poul Helgesen.
The sources of the verdict against Hans Tausen are very contradictory, but he was at least sentenced to deportation from the founders of Zealand and Skåne and to censorship, but the bourgeoisie in Copenhagen reacted so strongly to the verdict that it was largely taken back in connection with a settlement between Tausen and the Bishop of Zealand, Joachim Rønnow.
After the introduction of the Reformation in 1536, Hans Tausen was busy drafting the new church system. In addition, he taught - as the first in Denmark - Hebrew at the reopened and now Lutheran University. In 1538, Tausen became evangelical reading master at the cathedral chapter at Roskilde Cathedral. Here he was to help the Reformation and the new doctrine in Roskilde on sliding as an assistant to the Lutheran superintendent, Peder Palladius, who after 1537 resided in Copenhagen instead of Roskilde. As a reading master, associate professor, he oversaw the retraining of the former Roman parish priests who remained in their offices but now had to learn and preach according to the Lutheran faith.
In Roskilde, he married for the second time, when his first wife had died a few years before in Copenhagen. He lived in Roskilde until in 1542 he was appointed bishop of Ribe. He was not the first Lutheran bishop to be appointed, possibly because his relationship with the new King Christian III was not good, as well as because he, compared to other Lutheran clergy, belonged to the conservative wing within the new doctrine. Recent research, however, suggests that he was rather too radical in his teachings, and thus represented a different earlier theological stage than the later Lutheran theologians. During his time in Copenhagen and later in Ribe, he translated the five books of Moses [i] the Old Testament from Hebrew into Danish, albeit under the influence of Luther's corresponding translation, and he also wrote some hymns, few of which are still in use.In 1539 he published the first complete collection of Danish sermons for the whole church year, known as Hans Tausen's Postil. It consisted of both independent and adaptations of the sermons of others, especially sermons by Luther in an edition by Stephan Roth.
Theologically, Hans Tausen was of course inspired by Martin Luther's theology, but he also seems to have been influenced by other Reformed theologians. His sacramental vision can e.g. give memories of the Swiss Ulrich Zwingli (the later Reformed views) or the radical Andreas Bodenstein von Karlstadts. In an unpublished treaty from Tausen's last year, it has been proved that he wrote from the Reformed theologian Jean Calvin.
Hans Tausen died in 1561 and is buried in Ribe Cathedral right next to the then location of the pulpit, the symbolism of this square has been Tausen's significance for the Reformation he received through his sermons.
Hans Tausen was not the only Danish reformer, but one of the first, and is therefore also known as 'the Danish Luther'. The term, which dates from the days of pietism, is, however, an expression of recent understanding. Most well-known is this designation from BS Ingemann's song 'På Tave bondes ager' in Højskolesangbogen, where he is referred to as a Danish Morten Luther.
In Ribe you will find a statue of him outside the cathedral. In Viborg, on the site of the demolished Gråbrødre Church, there are two Hans Tausen monuments, an older and modest one from the Reformation anniversary in 1836, made by the sculptor HE Freund, and a new one, erected in 2004 on the occasion of the 475th anniversary of the Reformation in Viborg. This monument was made by the artist Bjørn Nørgaard.
In Denmark, two churches are named after Hans Tausen, Hans Tausen's Church on Islands Brygge and Hans Tausen's Church in Odense.
'Somewhere in the district I must still mention, though it is not a manor, but only a small peasant hut. North of Sanderumgård, almost on the boundary between this farm's exclusive marks and Birkende mark, which belongs to Veirup, is a small meadow and bog, which is still called Tageholm. In the meadow, near a house, is an elevation. In the old days there was a farmhouse where the blacksmith Tage lived, and here his son Hans Tausen was born, who became immortal as a church reformer. The peasants of the district are still known to tell of this Tage, that he must have been a very kind man, who knew more than his father-in-law, and understood how to make iron from mud, which he took in the bog. This and more of his deed was regarded as witchcraft, and the end result was that Tage was killed by the neighbors, and his house demolished. It is strange that molten iron pieces can still be found in the ground on the site,and hammer scales around the field. '
About Hans Tausen's father and birthplace on Funen, by the scientist Christian Molbech (Fragments of a diary, 1813)
Hans Tausen was married twice.
His first wife was Dorthea Sadolin, and they had the children:
Anna, born around 1530 in Viborg, died before 1561
Katrine, born around 1535 in Odense, married 1st time to Hans Andersen Foss and 2nd time to Jørgen Rasmussen
Jørgen, born around 1535 in Viborg, died 4 April 1578 in Copenhagen
His second wife was Anna Andersdatter, the couple married in 1538, and they had the children:
Dorthea, born around 1538 maybe in Ribe, died 15 April 1601 in Ribe, married to Bishop Hans Laugesen
Unknown name, a daughter, born 1542 in Ribe, died around 1565 in Ribe, married to Peder Bruun
Lisbet, born around 1552 in Ribe, married to Hans Porsborg
||Hickey, List, Bundesen, Thomsen, Jensen, Jessen
||19 Mar 2021 |
|+||1. Hans Tausen, b. 1494, Birkende, Fyn Island, Denmark , d. 11 Nov 1561, Ribe, Ribe Amt, Denmark (Age 67 years)|
||10 Mar 2021 |